Diana Baumrind, a psychologist, conducted research in the 1960s on more than one hundred and fifty children of preschool age. She identified several significant aspects of parenting using research methodologies such as naturalistic observation, interviews with parents, and other approaches.
These aspects include tactics for enforcing discipline, warmth and nurturing, different forms of communication, and expectations on maturity and self-control. Based on these qualities, Baumrind hypothesised that most parents might be classified into three distinct parenting styles. Maccoby and Martin’s further study led them to propose the addition of a fourth parenting style. The behavior of children is affected differently by each of these factors.
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Children are expected to abide by the rigorous guidelines set out by the parents under this parenting approach.
Usually, breaking these restrictions has a penalty. Parental authorities seldom justify their restrictions. The parent can simply respond, “Because I said so,” when pressed for an explanation.
These parents have great expectations, yet they don’t pay much attention to their kids. They want their kids to act admirably and not make mistakes, but they don’t give them a lot of advice on what they should do or not do in the future. The punishment for mistakes is sometimes fairly severe, yet the youngsters are frequently left wondering precisely what they did wrong.
In the same way authoritarian parents set rules and expectations for their children to obey, authoritative parents do the same. However, this approach to parenting is a lot more democratic.
Authoritative parents respond to their kids’ needs and are ready to hear their inquiries. These parents have high expectations for their kids but treat them well and give them constructive criticism. These parents are more caring and forgiving than strict when their kids don’t live up to the standards.
There is a distinction between permissive parents and indulgent parents in that permissive parents place relatively little expectations on their children. Because they have relatively modest expectations of their children’s maturity and ability to exercise self-control, these parents seldom reprimand their children.
In this parenting, even if they provide for their child’s fundamental requirements, these parents are often absent from their child’s everyday lives. They may make sure that their children have enough to eat and a place to sleep, but they probably don’t provide much direction, structure, rules, or support. In the most severe circumstances, these parents may refuse to meet their children’s demands or completely ignore them.
Advantages of Authoritative Parenting
Children with authoritative parents are more likely to agree with their demands because they are more likely to be seen as rational, fair, and just. Children are also far more likely to absorb these teachings since these parents set restrictions and offer justifications for those rules.
Children of authoritative parents can see why the rules are in place, comprehend that they are fair and acceptable, and strive to follow these rules to satisfy their own internalized sense of what is right and wrong. In this way, you need to teach good habits for children. This is in contrast to children of authoritarian parents, who may only follow the rules out of fear of punishment.
The authoritative parenting style is often related to good traits like high self-esteem and self-competence. Diverse parenting styles are associated with different child outcomes. However, a number of other crucial elements, such as culture, a child’s temperament, how they perceive their parents’ treatment of them, and societal pressures, can significantly impact how they behave.